GIVE

Palm Problems Key - Leaves (canopy)

Entire Canopy (most or all leaves):

Wilting
Fig-1_GZ_conk-150x180 

a. fungal conk (basidiocarp) present on trunk

Ganoderma butt rot

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP100

b. no fungal conk on trunk

 Fig-2_LY-wilted-Malayan-Dwarf-Harrison-150x180

1) older leaves dying and hanging against trunk; leaves may first become chlorotic or discolored; symptoms primarily on ‘Malayan Dwarf’ coconuts

lethal yellowing

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP146

 Fig-3_Palm-planted-too-deep-150x180

2) top of root system is not found within top 6 to 12 inches of soil

palm planted too deeply

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP263

 Fig-4_Poor-drainage-Coconut-150x180

3) soil is water-logged

poor soil aeration

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP263

Fig-5_GanodermaSections-150x180  4)cross-sections of trunk show rotting or discoloration of wood (determined after palm is cut down)

a) discoloration confined to lowest 4 feet, usually concentrated in the center of trunk

Ganoderma butt rot

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP100
Fig-6_Thielaviopsis-trunk-rot-of-Washingtonia-150x180 

b) trunk discoloration with dark fibrous appearance concentrated on one side of trunk

Thielaviopsis trunk rot

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP143

Most or all leaves necrotic, but still erect in canopy

palm dies within a few months;

palm is Syagrus romanzoffiana or Washingtonia robusta

Fig-7_Queen-palm-almost-dead-St-Georges-LakewoodRanch-150x180 

Fusarium Wilt

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/pp278

Leaves reduced in size
 Fig-8_N,K-def-on-Royal-150x180 a.leaves uniformly light green or yellow in color

nitrogen deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP268

 Fig-9_K def-Coconut 2-150x180

b. leaves chlorotic and necrotic

late stage potassium deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP269

Canopy growth in sharp angle to trunk axis
Fig-10_B-def-royal1L-150x180 

boron deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP264

Canopy topless from the trunk, usually without warning,rotted, black fibers evident
Fig-11_Washingtonia-with-Thielaviopsis-150x180 

Thielaviopsis trunk rot

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP143

Collapse of almost all leaves in canopy (more than wilting)
Fig-12_Lightning-Coconut 2-150x180 
a. rapid (1 to 7 days) collapse
lightning damage

b. moderately fast (more than 2 weeks) to slow collapse of crown (months)
 Fig-13-Opogona-damage-on-WodyetiaL-150x180 1) longitudinal-section through crown area shows crumbly trunk tissue (actually insect frass) and possibly ¾ to 1 inch long gray caterpillars
 
Opogona (banana moth) larvae damage

FACTSHEET: IP-24.pdf

 Fig-14-palmetto-frassl-cocoons-150x180

2) longitudinal-section through crown reveals galleries packed with frass, sometimes with creamy white grubs, cocoons or pupae; most common in Sabal palmetto or Phoenix canariensis, especially if stressed

palmetto weevil damage
 

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN139

Leaves tattered
Fig-15-Wind-damage-Carpentaria-L-150x180 
Wind damage
 
Leaflets missing or partially missing from leap tips
Fig-16-bare-leaf-tips-queen-L-150x180 

boron deficiency


FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP264

Chlorosys or necrosys of distal portion of leaves close to high voltage power lines
 Fig-17-Powerline-decline-Queen-150x180

powerline decline

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP263

Leaves uniformly light green
Fig-18-N-def-on-Ptychosperma-150x180  Nitrogen deficiency
 Fig-19-Fe-def-queen1-150x180 Chronic iron deficiency
FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP265
Spotting on leaves
Fig-20-Cu-tox-on-Paurotis-150x180 

A. Uniformly-colored necrotic spots accompanied by leaflet tip necrosis

Foliar spray toxicity

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP263

 Fig-21-Leaf-Spot-on-areca-Bipolaris-150x180

B. “spots” not raised; variable in size and in color from yellow to black; most common on small, immature palms.

Leaf spot diseases

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP142

Leaf bases (and often dead leaf blades) covered with light salmon-pink spores
Fig-22-Gliocladium-in-Washingtonia-L-150x180  Gliocladium blight

Most severe on oldest (lowest) leaves:

Chlorosis (shades of yellow)
Fig-23-LY-cocos-150x180  a. One or more older leaves uniformly yellow to yellow-orange in color (yellowed leaves may originate mid-canopy in some cases)
lethal yellowing
FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP146
 Fig-24-Mg-def-C.I.-Date-150x180

b. Chlorosis confined to margins of leaves or leaflets; central portion of leaves or leaflets distinctly green

magnesium deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP266

Leaves discolored, but not necessarily chlorotic; usually shades of red to dark brown or gray
Fig-25-LY-Pcanariensis-150x180  a. palm is a Phoenix species (other than P. roebelenii)

lethal yellowing

FACTSHEET:http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP146 or
Texas Phoenix palm decline http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP163
 Fig-26-LY-Borassus-flabellifer-Harrison-150x180

b. palm is not a Phoenix species.

lethal yellowing
 
FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP146
Leaflets have translucent yellow/orange or necrotic spotting or yellow-orange discoloration
Fig-27-K-def-on-Chamaerops-humilis-150x180  potassium deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP269
Leaflets of oldest living leaves are necrotic on one side of rachis only (or only some leaf segments necrotic if it is a fan palm) and petiole/rachis has reddish-brown to brown or black streak and vascular discoloration evident in cross-section of petiole.
Fig-28-Fusarium-wilt-Ph-canariensis-150x180 

a.palm is Phoenix species

Fusarium wilt

Petiole (Rachis) Blight (all Phoenix species)

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP139

http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP145

 Fig-7_Queen-palm-almost-dead-St-Georges-LakewoodRanch-150x180

b.palm is Syagrus romanzoffiana or Washingtonia robusta

1) palm rapidly declines (a few months)

Fusarium Wilt

FACTSHEET URL: Click Here

 Fig-29-Macrophoma-Rachis-Blight-on-Washingtonia-150x180

2) palm declines very slowly

petiole (rachis) blight

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP145
 

c. palm is not one of the palm species listed above; palm declines very slowly

petiole (rachis) blight

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP145

Note:  In most cases, only a diagnostic laboratory can separate a Fusarium disease (Fusarium wilt or Fusarium decline) from petiole (rachis) blight.
Tip or marginal leaf or leaflet necrosis
Fig-30-K-def-on-Dypsis-cabadae-150x180 

a. leaflet tips necrotic and curled

potassium deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP269

 Fig-31-K-def-on-Howea-forstoriana-150x180

b. leaflet tips not curled

1) leaflet tips necrotic, often broken off

potassium deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP269

 Fig-32-K-def-livistona-150x180

2) leaflet tips not broken off

a) leaflets have translucent yellow/orange or necrotic spotting or yellow-orange discoloration

potassium deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP269
 Fig-33-Sol-salts-Queen-150x180

b. leaflets do not have translucent yellow/orange or necrotic spotting or yellow-orange discoloration

soil salt injury

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP263
 Fig-34-B-tox-on-Chamaedorea-150x180 micronutrient or other chemical toxicity
 Fig-35-Water-stress-on-Geonoma-150x180

water stress

Note:  This situation often requires leaf nutrient analysis, soil analysis, or knowledge of plant environment or management history to differentiate between these problems.

Chlorotic and/or necrotic gray, brown, or black “spotting”
Fig-36-False-Smut-dactylifera_4-150x180 

a. very small (<1/16 inch) raised “spots” (actually fungal structures); primarily Phoenix spp.

Graphiola leaf spot (false smut)

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP140
 Fig-37-diamond _scale _nv-150x180

b. raised black, diamond-shaped “spots” (1/8 to 1/3 inch) (actually fungal structures), often accompanied by leaflet tip necrosis; (only on Washingtonia filifera in California and Arizona)

diamond scale

FACTSHEET: Click Here

 Fig-21-Leaf-Spot-on-areca-Bipolaris-150x180

c. spots are not raised

leaf spots (other than above)

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP142

 Fig-38-K-def-Caryota-leaf-150x180

potassium deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP269
Gummy exudates (“bleeding”) from multiple small 5 to 8 mm (1/5 to 1/3 inch) wounds in palm leaf bases; galleries in leaf petioles
Fig-39-meta-spindle-palm-exudate-150x180  silky cane weevil damage (Metamasius)

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN210
Old to middle-aged leaves have necrotic “skeletonized” patches with only veins and surface layers of leaf intact; underside of leaf necrotic patches typically covered in tubes of insect frass 
Fig-40-Latania-with-leaf-skeletonizer-damage-150x180 

palm leaf skeletonizers

Leaf kinks and hangs parallel to trunk
Fig-41-wind-damage-150x180  a. leaf remains healthy

wind damage
 R.-rivularis-frond-base-collapse-#1-150x180 b. leaf dies; multiple small 5 to 8 mm (1/5 to 1/3 inch) wounds in leaf base

silky cane weevil damage (Metamasius)


FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN210
More lower leaves dead than normal; upper canopy leaves may be wilted
Fig-42-Ganoderma-on-Sabal-L-150x180  Ganoderma butt rot

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP100
 Fig-25-LY-Pcanariensis-150x180 Palm is a Phoenix species (other than P. roebelenii)

lethal yellowing


FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP146
or
Texas Phoenix palm decline http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP163

Affecting youngest leaves only:

Spear leaf (youngest unopened leaf) discolored or collapsed
Fig-43-bent-new-leaf-queen1-vert L-150x180 

a. spear leaf hanging down, but does not pull out of bud

1) palm otherwise healthy

boron deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP264

 Fig-44-Bud-rot-Hyphorbe-L-150x180

b. spear leaf pulls easily out of bud

1) on cold-damaged palm

secondary bacterial bud rot

[Note:  cold damage occurred weeks prior to bud rot symptoms]

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP144

 

2) non cold-damaged palm

a) lowest leaves healthy

Phytophthora bud rot | Thielaviopsis bud rot

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP144
 Fig-46-dead-spear-leaf-ly-150x180

b) lowest leaves discolored brown or gray; Phoenix spp.

lethal yellowing

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP146
 Fig-45-phoenix-ly-150x180 Texas Phoenix palm decline

FACTSHEET:

Texas Phoenix palm decline http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP163
No new leaves emerging
Fig-47-bud-rot-cocos1L-150x180  a. rest of leaves still mostly green


bud rot  (bacterial, Phytophthora or Thielaviopsis)

non-pathogenic bud dama (physical damage to bud as might occur during a hurricane)

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP144
Fig-46-dead-spear-leaf-ly-150x180  b. lowest leaves brown; upper leaves green; palm is Phoenix sp.


1) lethal yellowing
FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP146
 Fig-45-phoenix-ly-150x180 2) Texas Phoenix palm decline


FACTSHEET: Texas Phoenix palm decline http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/PP163
New leaves chlorotic
Fig-48-Mn-def-Archontophoenix-150x180 

a. necrotic streaking present

manganese deficiency

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP267

 Fig-49-Fe-def-rhapis-150x180

1) no necrotic streaking present

iron deficiency

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP265

Fig-50-Fe-def-on-queen-leaf-150x180 

2) green spots on chlorotic new leaves

iron deficiency

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP265
 Fig-51-Royal-palm-bug-damage-L-150x180

3) leaflets of chlorotic new leaves becoming necrotic and palm is Roystonea sp.

royal palm bug damage

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/IN254
New leaves reduced in size, but older leaves full-sized.
Fig-52-frizzle-top-queen_2L-150x180 

A. new leaves mostly necrotic

1) leaflets curled or frizzled; leaflet necrosis more severe towards base of leaf

manganese deficiency

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP267

 Fig-53a-Pre-emergent-herbicide-damage-royal-150x180

Fig-53b-Pre-emerge-herbicide-damage-Royal-150x180

2) leaflets not curled or frizzled

pre-emergent herbicide injury (Figs. 53a & 53b)

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP263

 Fig-54-crumpled-leaf-b-def-150x180

B. new leaves not necrotic, but crumpled and greatly reduced in size

boron deficiency

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP264
 Fig-55-Mn-def-on-Coconut-150x180

C. new leaves have truncated tips

1) all leaflet tips truncated (Cocos nucifera only)

manganese deficiency

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP267
 Fig-56-stacked-triangles-cocosL-150x180

2) distal leaflets truncated in inverted “V” shape

boron deficiency

FACTSHEET URL: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP264
New leaves have sharply hooked leaflet tips
Fig-57-hookleaf-cocos-L-150x180 

boron deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP264

Spear (and often other new leaves) fail to open normally
Fig-58-unopened-spears-cocos-L-150x180 

boron deficiency

FACTSHEET: http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu/EP264

Transverse puckering or transverse translucent streaking on leaflets.
  Broken Link